ARGENTINE HEMORRHAGIC FEVER – ARGENTINA: (SANTA FE)

A ProMED-mail post
http://www.promedmail.org
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International Society for Infectious Diseases
http://www.isid.org

Date: Fri 27 Jul 2012
Source: Rosario 3 [in Spanish, trans. Mod. TY, edited]
http://www.rosario3.com/noticias/noticias.aspx?idNot=115639&Enfermo-de-fiebre-hemorrágica-se-recupera-en-el-Centenario 

A 30 year old man was hospitalized with a clinical picture of Argentine hemorrhagic fever. Fortunately, he is now out of danger.

He is a young man from Perez city, who had a disease called "disease of the stubble". He wad admitted in Rosario to the Centenario provincial hospital, where he was treated with plasma from individuals convalescent [from Junin virus infection}. 

Later, the hospital Subdirector, Juan Carlos Pendino, confirmed that the patient, who is a construction worker, will be released from hospital shortly. "He arrived Saturday night [21 Jul 2012] and yesterday the laboratory confirmed that he had an Argentine hemorrhagic fever virus [infection],"  he stated. 

Junin virus, a member of the genus Arenavirus, characteristically causes Argentine hemorrhagic fever (AHF). It is closely related to Machupo virus, the etiological agent of Bolivian hemorrhagic fever.  AHF leads to major alterations within the vascular, neurological and immune systems and has a mortality rate of between 20 and 30 per cent. The hosts of Junin virus are rodents, particularly _Mus musculus_, _Calomys spp_. and _Akodon azarae_.  The animals have a chronic, asymptomatic infection and shed virus through saliva, urine and blood.  Human infections occurs through contact with skins, mucosas and inhalation of [aerosolized] particles carrying the virus. 

[Argentine hemorrhagic fever] is a very serious acute disease that begins as a common cold and [may] progress to death in 1-2 weeks.  The incubation period of the infection is between 10-12 days, then with the 1st symptoms appearing including fever, headache, weakness and fatigue. Recuperation is through early treatment with blood plasma from formerly infected individuals. 

--
Communicated by:
ProMED-mail from HealthMap Alerts
<promed@romedmail.org>

[Although Argentine hemorrhagic fever (AHF) with Junin virus was 1st described in 1958, with subsequent increase of its  distribution to a wider geographic area, There have been relative few ProMED reports of the disease.  Because AHF has been a relatively common disease in Argentina, a vaccine has been developed for it.   The Pergamino Institute has been responsible for its production since 1991 but lack of funds has meant that it has been unable to prepare an adequate supply of vaccine to 
immunize the population at risk.  As Mod. CP reported (see ProMED-mail archive no. 20010404.0675), "The at-risk population is estimated at 3 500 000 inhabitants. Candid 1, an effective live attenuated virus vaccine, was developed through an international cooperative project involving the Government of Argentina, the Pan American Health Organization, the United Nations Development Programme, and the United States Army Medical Research and Development Command. Unfortunately, financial problems have restricted the production and utilization of Candid 1. According to the GIDEON database, most cases of this vaccine-preventable disease occur in Cordoba, Buenos Aires, and Santa Fe provinces, and the peak year was 1964 with over 
3000 cases, with 120 cases in each of 1993 and 1994."  Prevention of human cases is the same as for hantavituses: avoidance of activities that result in contact with aerosols in areas where the rodent hosts are present.  

An interactive HealthMap/ProMED-mail map showing the location of Perez city in Santa Fe province can be accessed at http://healthmap.org/r/2XCL . - Mod. TY]

See Also

2001

Argentinian hem. fever – Argentina (Buenos Aires Prov.) 20010404.0675
1997
—-
Argentinian hemorrhagic fever vaccine 19970313.0561
1995
—-
S.American hemorrhagic fevers 19950616.0420]
………………………………………….sb/dk/ty/dk

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