The October 25, 2013 M 7.1 earthquake offshore of Honshu, Japan occurred as the result of normal faulting in the shallow oceanic crust of the Pacific plate. The earthquake occurred outboard (east) of the Japan Trench, which marks the seafloor expression of the subduction zone plate boundary between the Pacific and North America plates, and is immediately up-dip of the source region of the March 2011 M 9.0 Tohoku earthquake. At the latitude of this earthquake, the Pacific plate moves westwards with respect to the North America plate at a rate of 83 mm/yr before subducting beneath the island of Honshu. Note that some authors divide this region into several microplates that together define the relative motions between the larger Pacific, North America and Eurasia plates; these include the Okhotsk and Amur microplates that are respectively part of North America and Eurasia.
The location, depth, and focal mechanism of the October 25 2013 event are consistent with normal faulting rupture near the outer-arc high of the Japan Trench. In this region, normal faulting is encouraged by both the bending of the Pacific plate as it enters the subduction zone, and by stresses transferred from the locked subduction thrust interface to the west. Since the March 2011 Tohoku earthquake, two large events of M 7.7 and M 7.3 have occurred in the vicinity of the October 25, 2013 earthquake. The M 7.7 event, on March 11, 2011, was also a normal faulting event near the outer-arc high and occurred 95 km north of the October 25 event. The M 7.3 event, on December 7, 2012, was a more complex earthquake resulting from thrust motion near the trench 100 km to the northwest of the October 25 earthquake. Since March 2011, 10 additional events, ranging in magnitude from M 6.1-6.4, have occurred in this region east of the Japan Trench.
Seismotectonics of Japan and Vicinity
Japan and the surrounding islands straddle four major tectonic plates: Pacific plate; North America plate; Eurasia plate; and Philippine Sea plate. The Pacific plate is subducted into the mantle, beneath Hokkaido and northern Honshu, along the eastern margin of the Okhotsk microplate, a proposed subdivision of the North America plate. Farther south, the Pacific plate is subducted beneath volcanic islands along the eastern margin of the Philippine Sea plate. This 2,200 km-long zone of subduction of the Pacific plate is responsible for the creation of the deep offshore Ogasawara and Japan trenches as well as parallel chains of islands and volcanoes, typical of Circumpacific island arcs. Similarly, the Philippine Sea plate is itself subducting under the Eurasia plate along a zone, extending from Taiwan to southern Honshu that comprises the Ryukyu Islands and the Nansei-Shoto trench.
Subduction zones at the Japanese island arcs are geologically complex and produce numerous earthquakes from multiple sources. Deformation of the overriding plates generates shallow crustal earthquakes, whereas slip at the interface of the plates generates interplate earthquakes that extend from near the base of the trench to depths of 40 to 60 km. At greater depths, Japanese arc earthquakes occur within the subducting Pacific and Philippine Sea plates and can reach depths of nearly 700 km. Since 1900, three great earthquakes occurred off Japan and three north of Hokkaido. They are the M8.4 1933 Sanriku-oki earthquake, the M8.3 2003 Tokachi-oki earthquake, the M9.0 2011 Tohoku earthquake, the M8.4 1958 Etorofu earthquake, the M8.5 1963 Kuril earthquake, and the M8.3 1994 Shikotan earthquake.
All residents of an apartment complex for the elderly in Virginia that was destroyed when a US Navy fighter jet crashed into it on Friday have been accounted for, with only one person still hospitalized with minor injuries, a rescue crew chief said on Saturday.
Many residents are now seeking somewhere to live after spending last night in a Red Cross shelter, officials said.
“Everyone has been accounted for” at the Mayfair Mews complex in Virginia Beach, the city’s fire Chief Tim Riley said, after crews had searched into the night for three missing residents since the midday crash. “We are not actively looking for anyone.”
One of the aviators was still in the hospital Saturday morning in good condition, though believed to have broken bones, Riley said. The crash injured seven people in all, including both crew members, and damaged six buildings in the complex.
Officials who scoured the blackened shells for bodies and others who witnessed the crash said they were amazed no one was killed or seriously injured in the fiery crash.
“It’s a miracle,” said Mary Hancock, a city spokesperson.
Said Riley: “We’re considered very fortunate for this event.”
But rescue crews have not yet issued an “all-clear” and continue combing through layers of debris to make sure no passers-by or others are underneath. Riley said that as of Saturday morning there have been no reports of missing people.
“We have a high level of certainty, 95 or 96 certain that no one is there. But we can’t be 100 percent certain” until the clean-up is finished, he said.
The U.S. Navy F/A-18 jet fighter suffered what a Pentagon official described as “a catastrophic mechanical malfunction” during a training flight before it crashed shortly after take-off. Both crew members ejected and one was found still strapped into his ejection seat.
Thick black clouds of smoke billowed into the air as fire reduced the apartment buildings to a blackened shell. The Mayfair Mews complex was less than two miles (3.2 km) from Naval Air Station Oceana, where the F-18 was based.
Riley said officials are now attending to the needs of the up to 63 residents whose apartment units were destroyed, including finding long-term housing for them.
All the residents without housing will have a meeting on Saturday afternoon with officials from the Red Cross and the Navy to
discuss options for housing.
The Red Cross will continue to provide shelter to anyone who needs it through the weekend, Virginia Beach’s Hancock said.
The governor of the Buenos Aires province, Daniel Scioli, asked residents in areas still severely affected by last Wednesday’s storm to “remain calm,” and assured that Government officials are working intensely to restore power and water services.
“The situation is progressively going back to normal, because after such storm, things obviously cannot be solved from one moment to the other. We’re restoring electricity and water services and some of the refugee centres are beginning to close,” he explained from the coastal town of Miramar.
Scioli thanked “all those who helped,” especially President Cristina Fernández de Kirchner, who provided additional emergency services and mattresses with the help of Army, Gendarmerie, and firemen who provided affected residents with drinking water during such times of distress.
The governor assured he understood “that people were angry because they had no water and no electricity.” But he also said that this was “a natural emergency that came all of a sudden.”
“I ask all of you to remain calm and trust us, because we’re working to solve this situation everyday,” he stated.
- This event has been reviewed by a seismologist.
|Depth||20 km (12.4 miles)|
|Region||NEGROS – CEBU REGION, PHILIPPINES|
|Distances||72 km (44 miles) N of Dumaguete, Negros, Philippines
74 km (45 miles) WNW of Tagbilaran, Bohol, Philippines
80 km (49 miles) WSW of Cebu, Cebu, Philippines
569 km (353 miles) SSE of MANILA, Philippines
|Location Uncertainty||horizontal +/- 13.5 km (8.4 miles); depth +/- 11.5 km (7.1 miles)|
|Parameters||NST= 72, Nph= 75, Dmin=744.7 km, Rmss=1.03 sec, Gp= 43°,
M-type=regional moment magnitude (Mw), Version=8
German power grid is incapable of dealing with de-centralised generating stations that renewables are dependent upon
Countries that have gone after the Green Dream of renewable energy are paying the price of buying into the man made Climate Change scam, Spain has learnt to its cost that the Green taxation that all renewable energy forms like solar and wind are dependent on are a killer for jobs, in Spain’s case every single Green job created has cost 2.2 jobs in conventional industries.
In Germany the story of renewable energy has been the usual sorry tale of failure where the German Solar Industry has turned into a €100 billion money pit, hugely expensive off shore wind farms are being built without any means of connecting them to the grid, an event is that repeated daily with other smaller installations of renewable energy.
The European Institute for Climate and Energy (EIKE) have produced a report by Dr Guenter Keil warning of the impending doom to the German economy caused by the lemming like charge to the Green mirage of affordable renewable energy.
Here are some excerpts from the Press release that have been translated into English:
EIKE Press Release, 24 January, 2012
Energy expert Dr. Guenter Keil has closely examined Germany’s energy policy of shifting away from nuclear and fossil fuels and over to renewables. What he finds is a bleak picture. Years ago Germany ambitiously embarked on transforming its energy supply system, and hopes to supply at least 80% of its energy needs through renewable energies by 2050, and thus become a moral leader on environmental responsibility for the rest of the world.
To do this, the former Socialist-Green coalition government, led by Gerhard Schröder, enacted the so-called Renewable
Energy Feed-In Act (EEG) in 2000. This Feed-In Act requires electric utilities to buy all renewable energies, such as solar and wind power, from all producers at fixed, exorbitant rates and to feed it into the power grid for a period of 20 years. This has led to a boon as thousands of homeowners, businesses, and investors have installed thousands of megawatts of solar and wind power capacity over the years. The current Conservative-Liberal government, not to be outdone by its predecessor, is also gleefully pushing the Feed-In Act to the limit.
The Liberal Green moral superiority of leading the way to economic suicide is a serious problem in the EU, Chris Huhne is trying to destroy the British economy in the same way as Germany is attempting, other EU Governments to a lesser degree are following in the footsteps driven blindly on by unelected EU Climate Commisar Connie Hedegaard.
The problem is that these energy sources are weather-dependent and thus their sporadic supply is starting to wreak havoc on Germany’s power grid and is even now threatening to destabilize power grids all across Europe. The other problem: the power grid needed to distribute the decentrally produced green power is simply not there yet. They forgot to build it! So far, after tens of billions of euros spent on renewable energy systems and higher prices for consumers, not a single coal or gas-fired power plant has been taken offline. To the contrary, old inefficient German plants have been brought back into service in an effort to stabilize the grid.
The report makes for disturbing reading as the consequences of Germany’s path to renewable energy have implications for large swathes of Europe as well.
The report can be read and downloaded Here (PDF)
comunicaciones de radio, e incluso afectar a algunos vuelos comerciales.
Las manchas solares 1401 y 1402 siguen en plena actividad. Y tras haber emitido dos potentes llamaradas, una contra Venus el pasado día 17 y otra contra la Tierra este mismo fin de semana, una tercera erupción, la más potente de todas (ver vídeo arriba), fue liberada el día 22 y nos alcanzará a lo largo de la jornada de hoy. A su llegada, provocará la mayor tormenta geomagnética que se conoce en nuestro planeta desde el año 2005. El fenómeno tiene la potencia suficiente como para causar problemas en los satélites de comunicaciones de órbita polar.
Todo empezó el pasado domingo, con una gran llamarada solar (la tercera en pocos días) en la región central del Sol. “La llamarada en sí -explica Doug Biesecker, físico del Centro de Predicción de Clima Espacial de la NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration)- no fue especialmente espectacular, pero produjo una eyección de masa coronal extremadamente rápida, viajando a una velocidad 6,4 millones de km. por hora”.
La erupción solar fue de clase M8,7 (en la imagen), mucho más potente que las dos anteriores (C6 y M3). Las llamaradas solares se clasifican, según su intensidad, con las letras A, B, C, M y X seguidas de un número del 1 al 9. Una M8,7, pues, está muy cerca de la intensidad máxima.
Según los datos recogidos por el Centro de Clima Espacial Goddard, de la NASA, la eyección de masa coronal (la nube de partículas y radiación ardiente expulsada por el Sol) se movía ayer por lo menos a 2.253 km. por segundo en dirección a la Tierra, y se calcula que golpeará la magnetosfera terrestre (el “escudo” magnético natural que protege a nuestro planeta de esta clase de eventos) durante el día de hoy, martes.
La intensidad del fenómeno garantiza, una vez más, espectaculares auroras boreales, incluso mucho más al sur de lo que es habitual. Por lo que respecta a la tormenta geomagnética (la perturbación de la magnetosfera causada por la nube de material solar), será la mayor que sufra nuestro planeta desde 2005. A pesar de ello, su intensidad se considera “medio alta”, por lo que se la ha clasificado como “fuerte”, pero no como “severa” o “extrema”.
Lo cual significa que, por ejemplo, será capaz de provocar fallos en los ordenadores de a bordo de los satélites en órbita y de interferir en las comunicaciones de radio de la zona polar. Dichos riesgos se mantendrán hasta mañána, miércoles. La tormenta geomagnética podría afectar también a algunos vuelos comerciales del hemisferio norte, a las refinerías de crudo y a las comunicaciones de las misiones científicas en el Ártico.