Murió Erminda Duarte, la última hermana que quedaba viva de Eva Perón. Los restos de la mujer, de 95 años, serán sepultados en el panteón que tiene la familia en el Cementerio de la Recoleta el miércoles por la tarde.
Erminda había participado días atrás del homenaje con motivo del 60 aniversario de la muerte de Eva, y había escrito el libro “Mi hermana Evita”.
|Federal Bureau of Investigation|
|Common name||Federal Bureau of Investigation|
|Seal of the Federal Bureau of Investigation|
COINTELPRO (an acronym for Counter Intelligence Program) was a series of covert, and often illegal, projects conducted by the United StatesFederal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) aimed at surveiling, infiltrating, discrediting, and disrupting domestic political organizations.
COINTELPRO tactics included discrediting targets through psychological warfare; smearing individuals and groups using forged documents and by planting false reports in the media; harassment; wrongful imprisonment; and illegal violence, including assassination. Covert operations under COINTELPRO took place between 1956 and 1971; however, the FBI has used covert operations against domestic political groups since its inception.The FBI’s stated motivation at the time was “protecting national security, preventing violence, and maintaining the existing social and political order.”
FBI records show that 85% of COINTELPRO resources targeted groups and individuals that the FBI deemed “subversive,” including communist andsocialist organizations; organizations and individuals associated with the civil rights movement, including Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. and others associated with the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, and the Congress of Racial Equalityand other civil rights organizations; black nationalist groups; the American Indian Movement; a broad range of organizations labeled “New Left“, including Students for a Democratic Society and the Weathermen; almost all groups protesting the Vietnam War, as well as individual student demonstrators with no group affiliation; the National Lawyers Guild; organizations and individuals associated with the women’s rights movement; nationalist groups such as those seeking independence for Puerto Rico,United Ireland, and Cuban exile movements including Orlando Bosch‘s Cuban Power and the Cuban Nationalist Movement; and additional notable Americans, such as Albert Einstein (who was a member of several civil rights groups). The remaining 15% of COINTELPRO resources were expended to marginalize and subvert “white hate groups,” including the Ku Klux Klanand the National States’ Rights Party.
FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover issued directives governing COINTELPRO, ordering FBI agents to “expose, disrupt, misdirect, discredit, or otherwise neutralize” the activities of these movements and their leaders.
COINTELPRO began in 1956 and was designed to “increase factionalism, cause disruption and win defections” inside the Communist Party U.S.A.(CPUSA). However, the program was soon enlarged to include disruption of the Socialist Workers Party (1961), the Ku Klux Klan (1964), the Nation of Islam, the Black Panther Party (1967), and the entire New Left social/political movement, which included antiwar, community, and religious groups (1968). A later investigation by the Senate’s Church Committee (see below) stated that “COINTELPRO began in 1956, in part because of frustration with Supreme Court rulings limiting the Government’s power to proceed overtly against dissident groups…” Congress and several court cases laterconcluded that the COINTELPRO operations against communist and socialist groups exceeded statutory limits on FBI activity and violated constitutional guarantees of freedom of speech and association.
The program was successfully kept secret until 1971, when the Citizens’ Commission to Investigate the FBI burglarized an FBI field office in Media, Pennsylvania, took several dossiers, and exposed the program by passing this information to news agencies. Many news organizations initially refused to publish the information. Within the year, Director Hoover declared that the centralized COINTELPRO was over, and that all future counterintelligence operations would be handled on a case-by-case basis.
Further documents were revealed in the course of separate lawsuits filed against the FBI by NBC correspondent Carl Stern, the Socialist Workers Party, and a number of other groups. A major investigation was launched in 1976 by the Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities of the United States Senate, commonly referred to as the “Church Committee” for its chairman, Senator Frank Church of Idaho. However, millions of pages of documents remain unreleased, and many released documents have been partly, or entirely, redacted.
In the Final Report of the Select Committee, COINTELPRO was castigated in no uncertain terms:
- Many of the techniques used would be intolerable in a democratic society even if all of the targets had been involved in violent activity, but COINTELPRO went far beyond that…the Bureau conducted a sophisticated vigilante operation aimed squarely at preventing the exercise of First Amendment rights of speech and association, on the theory that preventing the growth of dangerous groups and the propagation of dangerous ideas would protect the national security and deter violence.
The Church Committee documented a history of use of the agency for purposes of political repression as far back as World War I, through the 1920s, when agents were charged with rounding up “anarchists and revolutionaries” for deportation, and then building from 1936 through 1976.
The intended effect of the FBI’s COINTELPRO program was to “expose, disrupt, misdirect, or otherwise neutralize” groups that the FBI believed were “subversive” by instructing FBI field operatives to:
- Create a negative public image for target groups (e.g. by surveiling activists, and then releasing negative personal information to the public)
- Break down internal organization (e.g. by having agents exacerbate racial tensions, or send anonymous letters to try to create conflicts)
- Create dissension between groups (e.g. by spreading rumors that other groups were stealing money)
- Restrict access to public resources (e.g. by pressuring non-profit organizations to cut off funding or material support)
- Restrict the ability to organize protests (e.g. agents sending letters promoting violence against police at protests)
- Restrict the ability of individuals to participate in group activities (e.g. by character assassinations, false arrests, surveillance)
Range of targets
In an interview with the BBC‘s Andrew Marr, MIT professor of linguistics and political activist Noam Chomsky spoke about the purpose and the targets of COINTELPRO saying, “COINTELPRO was a program of subversion carried out not by a couple of petty crooks but by the national political police, the FBI, under four administrations… by the time it got through, I won’t run through the whole story, it was aimed at the entire new left, at the women’s movement, at the whole black movement, it was extremely broad. Its actions went as far as political assassination.” 
According to the Church Committee:
- While the declared purposes of these programs were to protect the “national security” or prevent violence, Bureau witnesses admit that many of the targets were nonviolent and most had no connections with a foreign power. Indeed, nonviolent organizations and individuals were targeted because the Bureau believed they represented a “potential” for violence — and nonviolent citizens who were against the war in Vietnam were targeted because they gave “aid and comfort” to violent demonstrators by lending respectability to their cause.
- The imprecision of the targeting is demonstrated by the inability of the Bureau to define the subjects of the programs. The Black Nationalist program, according to its supervisor, included “a great number of organizations that you might not today characterize as black nationalist but which were in fact primarily black.” Thus, the nonviolent Southern Christian Leadership Conference was labeled as a Black Nationalist-“Hate Group.”
- Furthermore, the actual targets were chosen from a far broader group than the titles of the programs would imply. The CPUSA program targeted not only Communist Party members but also sponsors of the National Committee to Abolish the House Un-American Activities Committee and civil rights leaders allegedly under Communist influence or deemed to be not sufficiently “anti-Communist”. The Socialist Workers Party program included non-SWP sponsors of anti-war demonstrations which were cosponsored by the SWP or the Young Socialist Alliance, its youth group. The Black Nationalist program targeted a range of organizations from the Panthers to SNCC to the peaceful Southern Christian Leadership Conference, and included every Black Student Union and many other black student groups. New Left targets ranged from the SDS to the InterUniversity Committee for Debate on Foreign Policy, from Antioch College (“vanguard of the New Left”) to the New Mexico Free University and other “alternate” schools, and from underground newspapers to students’ protesting university censorship of a student publication by carrying signs with four-letter words on them.
Examples of surveillance, spanning all Presidents from FDR to Nixon, both legal and illegal, contained in the Church Committee report:
- President Roosevelt asked the FBI to put in its files the names of citizens sending telegrams to the White House opposing his “national defense” policy and supporting Col. Charles Lindbergh.
- President Truman received inside information on a former Roosevelt aide’s efforts to influence his appointments, labor union negotiating plans, and the publishing plans of journalists.
- President Eisenhower received reports on purely political and social contacts with foreign officials by Bernard Baruch, Mrs. Eleanor Roosevelt, and Supreme Court Justice William O. Douglas.
- The Kennedy administration had the FBI wiretap a congressional staff member, three executive officials, a lobbyist, and a Washington law firm. US Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy received the fruits of an FBI “tap” on Martin Luther King, Jr. and a “bug” on a Congressman, both of which yielded information of a political nature.
- President Johnson asked the FBI to conduct “name checks” of his critics and members of the staff of his 1964 opponent, Senator Barry Goldwater. He also requested purely political intelligence on his critics in the Senate, and received extensive intelligence reports on political activity at the 1964 Democratic Convention from FBI electronic surveillance.
- President Nixon authorized a program of wiretaps which produced for the White House purely political or personal information unrelated to national security, including information about a Supreme Court justice.
The COINTELPRO documents disclose numerous cases of the FBI’s intentions to stop the mass protest against the Vietnam War. Many techniques were used to accomplish the assignment. “These included promoting splits among antiwar forces, encouraging red-baiting of socialists, and pushing violent confrontations as an alternative to massive, peaceful demonstrations.” One 1966 Cointelpro operation attempted to redirect the Socialist Workers Party from their pledge of support for the antiwar movement.
The FBI claims that it no longer undertakes COINTELPRO or COINTELPRO-like operations. However, critics claim that agency programs in the spirit of COINTELPRO targeted groups such as the Committee in Solidarity with the People of El Salvador, the American Indian Movement, Earth First!, theWhite Separatist Movement, and the Anti-Globalization Movement.
According to attorney Brian Glick in his book War at Home, the FBI used four main methods during COINTELPRO:
- Infiltration: Agents and informers did not merely spy on political activists. Their main purpose was to discredit and disrupt. Their very presence served to undermine trust and scare off potential supporters. The FBI and police exploited this fear to smear genuine activists as agents.
- Psychological Warfare From the Outside: The FBI and police used myriad “dirty tricks” to undermine progressive movements. They planted false media stories and published bogus leaflets and other publications in the name of targeted groups. They forged correspondence, sent anonymous letters, and made anonymous telephone calls. They spread misinformation about meetings and events, set up pseudo movement groups run by government agents, and manipulated or strong-armed parents, employers, landlords, school officials and others to cause trouble for activists.
- Harassment Through the Legal System: The FBI and police abused the legal system to harass dissidents and make them appear to be criminals. Officers of the law gave perjured testimony and presented fabricated evidence as a pretext for false arrests and wrongful imprisonment. They discriminatorily enforced tax laws and other government regulations and used conspicuous surveillance, “investigative” interviews, and grand jury subpoenas in an effort to intimidate activists and silence their supporters.
- Illegal Force and Violence: The FBI conspired with local police departments to threaten dissidents; to conduct illegal break-ins in order to search dissident homes; and to commit vandalism, assaults, beatings and assassinations.The object was to frighten, or eliminate, dissidents and disrupt their movements.
The FBI specifically developed tactics intended to heighten tension and hostility between various factions in the black militancy movement, for example between the Black Panthers, the US Organization and the Blackstone Rangers. This resulted in numerous deaths, among which were the US Organization assassinations of San Diego Black Panther Party members John Huggins, Bunchy Carter and Sylvester Bell.
The FBI also conspired with the police departments of many U.S. cities (San Diego, Los Angeles, San Francisco, Oakland, Philadelphia, Chicago) to encourage repeated raids on Black Panther homes—often with little or no evidence of violations of federal, state, or local laws—which resulted directly in the police killing of many members of the Black Panther Party, most notably the assassination of Chicago Black Panther Party Chairman Fred Hampton on December 4, 1969.
In order to eliminate black militant leaders whom they considered dangerous, the FBI conspired with local police departments to target specific individuals, accuse them of crimes they did not commit, suppress exculpatory evidence and falsely incarcerate them. One Black Panther Party leader, Elmer “Geronimo” Pratt, was incarcerated for 27 years before a California Superior Court vacated his murder conviction, ultimately freeing him. Appearing before the court, an FBI agent testified that he believed Pratt had been framed because both the FBI and the Los Angeles Police Department knew he had been out of the area at the time the murder occurred. 
In 1969 the FBI special agent in San Francisco wrote Hoover that his investigation of the Black Panther Party (BPP) revealed that in his city, at least, the Panthers were primarily feeding breakfast to children. Hoover fired back a memo implying the career ambitions of the agent were directly related to his supplying evidence to support Hoover’s view that the BPP was “a violence-prone organization seeking to overthrow the Government by revolutionary means”.
Hoover was willing to use false claims to attack his political enemies. In one memo he wrote: “Purpose of counterintelligence action is to disrupt the BPP and it is immaterial whether facts exist to substantiate the charge.”
In one particularly controversial 1965 incident, civil rights worker Viola Liuzzo was murdered by Ku Klux Klansmen who gave chase and fired shots into her car after noticing that her passenger was a young black man; one of the Klansmen was acknowledged FBI informant Gary Thomas Rowe. Afterward COINTELPRO spread false rumors that Liuzzo was a member of the Communist Party and abandoned her children to have sexual relationships with African Americans involved in thecivil rights movement. FBI informant Rowe has also been implicated in some of the most violent crimes of the 1960s civil rights era, including attacks on the Freedom Riders and the 1963 Birmingham, Alabama 16th Street Baptist Church bombing. In another instance in San Diego the FBI financed, armed, and controlled an extreme right-wing group of former Minutemen, transforming it into a group called the Secret Army Organization which targeted groups, activists, and leaders involved in the Anti-War Movement for both intimidation and violent acts.
The final report of the Church Committee concluded:
- Too many people have been spied upon by too many Government agencies and too much information has been collected. The Government has often undertaken the secret surveillance of citizens on the basis of their political beliefs, even when those beliefs posed no threat of violence or illegal acts on behalf of a hostile foreign power. The Government, operating primarily through secret informants, but also using other intrusive techniques such as wiretaps, microphone “bugs”, surreptitious mail opening, and break-ins, has swept in vast amounts of information about the personal lives, views, and associations of American citizens. Investigations of groups deemed potentially dangerous — and even of groups suspected of associating with potentially dangerous organizations — have continued for decades, despite the fact that those groups did not engage in unlawful activity.
- Groups and individuals have been harassed and disrupted because of their political views and their lifestyles. Investigations have been based upon vague standards whose breadth made excessive collection inevitable. Unsavory and vicious tactics have been employed — including anonymous attempts to break up marriages, disrupt meetings, ostracize persons from their professions, and provoke target groups into rivalries that might result in deaths. Intelligence agencies have served the political and personal objectives of presidents and other high officials. While the agencies often committed excesses in response to pressure from high officials in the Executive branch and Congress, they also occasionally initiated improper activities and then concealed them from officials whom they had a duty to inform.
- Governmental officials — including those whose principal duty is to enforce the law –have violated or ignored the law over long periods of time and have advocated and defended their right to break the law.
- The Constitutional system of checks and balances has not adequately controlled intelligence activities. Until recently the Executive branch has neither delineated the scope of permissible activities nor established procedures for supervising intelligence agencies. Congress has failed to exercise sufficient oversight, seldom questioning the use to which its appropriations were being put. Most domestic intelligence issues have not reached the courts, and in those cases when they have reached the courts, the judiciary has been reluctant to grapple with them.
COINTELPRO tactics continue
While COINTELPRO was officially terminated in April 1971, continuing FBI actions indicate that post-COINTELPRO reforms did not succeed in ending COINTELPRO tactics. Documents released under the FOIA show that the FBI tracked the late Pulitzer Prize-winning journalist and author David Halberstam for more than two decades.
“Counterterrorism” guidelines implemented during the Reagan administration have been described as allowing a return to COINTELPRO tactics. Some radical groups accuse factional opponents of being FBI informants or assume the FBI is infiltrating the movement.
The FBI improperly opened investigations of American activist groups, even though they were planning nothing more than peaceful civil disobedience, according to a report by the inspector general (IG) of the U.S. Department of Justice. The review by the inspector general was launched in response to complaints by civil liberties groups and members of Congress. The FBI improperly monitored groups including the Thomas Merton Center, a Pittsburgh-based peace group, People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA), and Greenpeace USA, an environmental activism organization. Also, activists affiliated with Greenpeace were improperly put on aterrorist watch list, even though they were planning no violence or illegal acitivities. The IG report found the “troubling” FBI practices between 2001 and 2006. In some cases, the FBI conducted investigations of people affiliated with activist groups for “factually weak” reasons. Also, the FBI extended investigations of some of the groups “without adequate basis” and improperly kept information about activist groups in its files. The IG report also found that FBI Director Robert Mueller IIIprovided inaccurate congressional testimony about one of the investigations, but this inaccuracy may have been due to his relying on what FBI officials told him.
Several authors have accused the FBI of continuing to deploy COINTELPRO-like tactics against radical groups after the official COINTELPRO operations were ended. Several authors have suggested the American Indian Movement (AIM) has been a target of such operations.
A few authors go further and allege that the federal government intended to acquire uranium deposits on the Lakota tribe’s reservation land, and that this motivated a larger government conspiracy against AIM activists on the Pine Ridge reservation. Others believe COINTELPRO continues and similar actions are being taken against activist groups.
Caroline Woidat argued that with respect to Native Americans, COINTELPRO should be understood within a historical context in which “Native Americans have been viewed and have viewed the world themselves through the lens of conspiracy theory.”
- Agent provocateur
- H. Rap Brown, targeted by COINTELPRO
- COINTELPRO targets
- Citizens’ Commission to Investigate the FBI
- Cold war
- The COINTELPRO Papers
- Cuban Nationalist Movement
- William Mark Felt, also known as Deep Throat served as chief inspector of COINTELPRO field operations
- Howard Bruce Franklin, targeted by COINTELPRO
- David Halberstam, targeted by COINTELPRO
- Ernest Hemingway, targeted by COINTELPRO
- Hampton, Fred, targeted by COINTELPRO
- Viola Liuzzo, murdered by a shot from a car used by four Ku Klux Klansmen, one of whom was a COINTELPRO informant
- NSA call database
- NSA warrantless surveillance controversy
- Operation Mockingbird
- Orlando Bosch
- Police brutality
- Red squad – Police intelligence/anti-dissident units, later operated under COINTELPRO
- Security culture
- Morris Starsky, early target of COINTELPRO
- State Terrorism
- US Patriot Act
- ^ a b c d “Quick Facts”. Federal Bureau of Investigation. Retrieved 2009-11-20.
- ^ [http://www.icdc.com/~paulwolf/cointelpro/churchfinalreportIIca.htm
- ^ a b c d e f The FBI’S Covert Action Program to Destroy the Black Panther Party
- ^ a b c d FBI Secrets: An Agent’s Expose. M. Wesley Swearigan. Boston. South End Press. 1995. Special Agent Gregg York: “We expected about twenty Panthers to be in the apartment when the police raided the place. Only two of those black nigger fuckers were killed, Fred Hampton and Mark Clark.”
- ^ a b c d itsabouttimebpp.com
- ^ a b c Churchill, Ward, and Jim Vander Wall, (1990), The COINTELPRO Papers: Documents from the FBI’s Secret Wars Against Domestic Dissent, Boston: South End Press, pp. xii, 303.
- ^ COINTELPRO: The FBI’s Covert Action Programs Against American Citizens, Final Report of the Senate Committee to Study Governmental Operations with respect to Intelligence Acti…
- ^ Jeffreys-Jones, Rhodri. THE FBI, Yale University Press, 2008, p. 189
- ^ Ken Gewertz (2007-04-12). “Albert Einstein, Civil Rights activist”. Harvard University Gazette. Archived from the originalon 2007-05-29. Retrieved 2007-06-11.
- ^ Various Church Committee reports reproduced online at ICDC: Final Report, 2A; Final Report,2Cb; Final Report, 3A; Final Report, 3G. Various COINTELPRO documents reproduced online at ICDC: CPUSA; SWP; Black Nationalist; White Hate; New Left; Puerto Rico.
- ^ a b COINTELPRO Revisited – Spying & Disruption – IN BLACK AND WHITE: THE F.B.I. PAPERS
- ^ “A Huey P. Newton Story – Actions – COINTELPRO”. PBS. Archived from the originalon 2010-11-18. Retrieved 2008-06-23.
- ^ a b “Supplementary Detailed Staff Reports on Intelligence Activities and the Rights of Americans”. United States Senate. Retrieved 2010-12-01.
- ^ See, for example, Hobson v. Wilson, 737 F.2d 1 (1984); Rugiero v. U.S. Dept. of Justice, 257 F.3d 534, 546 (2001).
- ^ A Short History of FBI COINTELPRO. Retrieved July 13, 2007. ArchivedSeptember 28, 2007 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ Deflam, Mathieu (2008). Surveillance and governance: crime control and beyond. Emerald Publishing Group. pp. 182. ISBN 9780762314164.
- ^ Deflam, Mathieu (2008). Surveillance and governance: crime control and beyond. Emerald Publishing Group. pp. 184-185. ISBN 9780762314164.
- ^ Videoat YouTube
- ^ Intelligence Activities and the Rights of Americans, Final Report of the Senate Committee to Study Governmental Operations with respect to Intelligence Activities
- ^ Blackstock, Nelson. COINTELPRO: The FBI’s Secret War on Political Freedom, Pathfinder, New York. 1975. p. 111.
- ^ Gelbspan, Ross. (1991) Break-Ins, Death Threats, and the FBI: The Covert War Against the Central America Movement, Boston: South End Press.
- ^ a b Churchill, Ward; and James Vander Wall. Agents of Repression: The FBI’s Secret Wars against the Black Panther Party and the American Indian Movement, 1988, Boston, South End Press.
- ^ Pickett, Karen. “Earth First!(The RedWood Tree Activists on the West Coast) Takes the FBI to Court: Judi Bari and Darryl Cherney’s Case Heard after 12 Years,” Earth First Journal, no date.
- ^ The Railroading of Matt Hale by Edgar J. Steele
- ^ Brown, Elaine. A Taste of Power: A Black Woman’s Story. (New York: Doubleday, 1992, pp204-06
- ^ icdc.com
- ^ “Former Black Panther freed after 27 years in jail”. CNN. Archived from the originalon 2010-11-18. Retrieved April 30, 2010.
- ^ In re Pratt, 82 Cal
- ^ Alexander Cockburn; Jeffrey St. Clair (1998). Whiteout: The CIA, Drugs and the Press. Verso. p. 69. ISBN 978-1-85984-139-6.
- ^ FBI document, 19 July 1966, DeLoach to Sullivan re: “Black Bag” Jobs.
- ^ 
- ^ FBI document, 27 May 1969, Director FBI to SAC San Francisco. Available at the FBI reading room.
- ^ FBI document, 16 September 1970, Director FBI to SAC’s in Baltimore, Detroit, Los Angeles, New Haven, San Francisco, and Washington Field Office. Available at the FBI reading room.
- ^ a b Gary May, The Informant: The FBI, the Ku Klux Klan, and the Murder of Viola Luzzo, Yale University Press, 2005.
- ^ “Jonathan Yardley”. The Washington Post. Archived from the originalon 2010-11-18. Retrieved April 30, 2010.
- ^ Joanne Giannino. “Viola Liuzzo”. Dictionary of Unitarian & Universalist Biography. Archived from the originalon 2010-11-18. Retrieved 2008-09-29.
- ^ Kay Houston. “The Detroit housewife who moved a nation toward racial justice”. The Detroit News, Rearview Mirror. Archived from the originalon 1999-04-27.
- ^ Mary Stanton (2000). “From Selam to sorrow: The Life and Death of Viola Liuzzo”. University of Georgia Press.
- ^ planting media cash advance debt at plantingseedsmedia.com
- ^ Triumphs of Democracy, by Noam Chomsky (Excerpted from Language and Responsibility)
- ^ Watergate and the Secret Army Organization – msg#00404 – culture.discuss.cia-drugs
- ^ 1972
- ^ 
- ^ OpEdNews – Article: J. Edgar Hoover personally ordered FBI to initiate COINTELPRO dirty tricks against Black Panthers in ‘Omaha Two’ case
- ^ “Intelligence Activities and the Rights of Americans Book II, Final Report of the Select Committee to Study Governmmental Operations with respect to Intelligence Activities United States Senate (Church Committee)”. United States Senate. Retrieved May 11, 2006.
- ^ “Tapped Out Why Congress won’t get through to the NSA.”. Slate.com. Retrieved May 11, 2006.
- ^ David Cunningham. There’s Something Happening Here: The New Left, the Klan, and FBI. University of California Press, 2005: “However, strong suspicions lingered that the program’s tactics were sustained on a less formal basis—suspicions sometimes furthered by agents themselves, who periodically claimed that counterintelligence activities were continuing, though in a manner undocumented within Bureau files.”; Hobson v. Brennan, 646 F.Supp. 884 (D.D.C.,1986)
- ^ Bud Schultz, Ruth Schultz. The Price of Dissent: Testimonies to Political Repression in America. University of California Press, 2001: “Although the FBI officially discontinued COINTELPRO immediately after the Pennsylvania disclosures “for security reasons,” when pressed by the Senate committee, the bureau acknowledged two new instances of “Cointelpro-type” operations. The committee was left to discover a third, apparently illegal operation on its own.”
- ^ Athan G. Theoharis, et al. The FBI: A Comprehensive Reference Guide. Greenwood Publishing Group, 1999: “More recent controversies have focused on the adequacy of recent restrictions on the Bureau’s domestic intelligence operations. Disclosures of the 1970s that FBI agents continued to conduct break-ins, and of the 1980s that the FBI targeted CISPES, again brought forth accusations of FBI abuses of power — and raised questions of whether reforms of the 1970s had successfully exorcised the ghost of FBI Director Hoover.”
- ^ The Associated Press, “FBI tracked journalist for over 20 years”. Toronto Star. November 7, 2008. Retrieved November 23, 2008.
- ^ 
- ^ Bud Schultz, Ruth Schultz. The Price of Dissent: Testimonies to Political Repression in America. University of California Press, 2001: : “The problem persists after Hoover….”The record before this court,” Federal Magistrate Joan Lefkow stated in 1991, “shows that despite regulations, orders and consent decrees prohibiting such activities, the FBI had continued to collect information concerning only the exercise of free speech.”
- ^ Mike Mosedale, “Bury My Heart,” City Pages, Volume 21 – Issue 1002 – Cover Story – February 16, 2000
- ^ “FBI Probes of Groups Were Improper, Justice Department Says”. The San Jose Mercury News. September 20, 2010. also reported at democracynow.org
- ^ Weyler, Rex. Blood of the Land: The Government and Corporate War Against First Nations.
- ^ Matthiessen, Peter, In the Spirit of Crazy Horse, 1980, Viking.
- ^ a b Woidat, Caroline M. The Truth Is on the Reservation: American Indians and Conspiracy Culture, The Journal of American Culture 29 (4), 2006. Pages 454–467
- ^ McQuinn, Jason. “Conspiracy Theory vs Alternative Journalism”, Alternative Press Review, Vol. 2, No. 3, Winter 1996
- ^ Horowitz, David. “Johnnie’s Other O.J.”, FrontPageMagazine.com. September 1, 1997.
- ^ Woidat, Caroline M. “The Truth Is on the Reservation: American Indians and Conspiracy Culture”, The Journal of American Culture 29 (4), 2006. pp. 454–467.
- ^ Berlet, Chip. “The X-Files Movie: Facilitating Fanciful Fun, or Fueling Fear and Fascism? Conspiracy Theories for Fun, Not for False Prophets”, 1998, Political Research Associates
- ^ Berlet, Chip; and Matthew N. Lyons. 1998, “One key to litigating against government prosecution of dissidents: Understanding the underlying assumptions”, Parts 1 and 2, Police Misconduct and Civil Rights Law Report (West Group), 5 (13), (January–February): 145–153; and 5 (14), (March–April): 157–162.
- Blackstock, Nelson (1988). Cointelpro: The FBI’s Secret War on Political Freedom. Pathfinder Press. ISBN 978-0-87348-877-8.
- Carson, Clayborne; Gallen, David, editors (1991). Malcolm X: The FBI File. Carroll & Graf Publishers. ISBN 978-0-88184-758-1.
- Churchill, Ward; Vander Wall, Jim (2001). The COINTELPRO Papers: Documents from the FBI’s Secret Wars Against Dissent in the United States.South End Press. ISBN 978-0-89608-648-7.
- Cunningham, David (2004). There’s Something Happening Here: The New Left, The Klan, and FBI Counterintelligence. University of California Press.ISBN 978-0-520-23997-5.
- Davis, James Kirkpatrick (1997). Assault on the Left. Praeger Trade. ISBN 978-0-275-95455-0.
- Garrow, David (2006). The FBI and Martin Luther King, Jr. (Revised ed.). Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-08731-4.
- Glick, Brian (1989). War at Home: Covert Action Against U.S. Activists and What We Can Do About It. South End Press. ISBN 978-0-89608-349-3.
- Halperin, Morton; Berman, Jerry; Borosage Robert; Marwick, Christine (1976). The Lawless State: The Crimes Of The U.S. Intelligence Agencies.ISBN 978-0-14-004386-0.
- Olsen, Jack (2000). Last Man Standing: The Tragedy and Triumph of Geronimo Pratt. Doubleday. ISBN 978-0-385-49367-3.
- Perkus, Cathy (1976). Cointelpro. Vintage.
- Theoharis, Athan, Spying on Americans: Political Surveillance from Hoover to the Huston Plan (Temple University Press, 1978).
- Drabble, John. “The FBI, COINTELPRO-WHITE HATE and the Decline of Ku Klux Klan Organizations in Mississippi, 1964–1971″, Journal of Mississippi History, 66:4, (Winter 2004).
- Drabble, John. “The FBI, COINTELPRO-WHITE HATE and the Decline Ku Klux Klan Organizations in Alabama, 1964–1971″, Alabama Review, 61:1, (January 2008): 3-47.
- Drabble, John. “To Preserve the Domestic Tranquility:” The FBI, COINTELPRO-WHITE HATE, and Political Discourse, 1964–1971″, Journal of American Studies, 38:3, (August 2004): 297-328.
- Drabble, John. “From White Supremacy to White Power: The FBI’s COINTELPRO-WHITE HATE Operation and the “Nazification” of the Ku Klux Klan in the 1970s,” American Studies, 48:3 (Fall 2007): 49-74.
- Drabble, John. “Fighting Black Power-New Left coalitions: Covert FBI media campaigns and American cultural discourse, 1967-1971,” European Journal of American Culture, 27:2, (2008): 65-91.
U.S. government reports
- U.S. Congress. House. Committee on Internal Security. Hearings on Domestic Intelligence Operations for Internal Security Purposes. 93rd Cong., 2d sess, 1974.
- U.S. Congress. House. Select Committee on Intelligence. Hearings on Domestic Intelligence Programs. 94th Cong., 1st sess, 1975.
- U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on Government Operations. Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations. Hearings on Riots, Civil and Criminal Disorders. 90th Cong., 1st sess. – 91st Cong., 2d sess, 1967–1970.
- U.S. Congress. Senate. Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities. Hearings — The National Security Agency and Fourth Amendment Rights. Vol. 6. 94th Cong., 1st sess, 1975.
- U.S. Congress. Senate. Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities. Hearings — Federal Bureau of Investigation. Vol. 6. 94th Cong., 1st sess, 1975.
- U.S. Congress. Senate. Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities. Final Report — Book II, Intelligence Activities and the Rights of Americans. 94th Cong., 2d sess, 1976.
- U.S. Congress. Senate. Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities. Final Report — Book III, Supplementary Detailed Staff Reports on Intelligence Activities and the Rights of Americans. 94th Cong., 2d sess, 1976.
- “Me and My Shadow”: A History of the FBI’s Covert Operations and COINTELPRO – Part 1″. 34:21 minute Real Audio. Produced by Adi Gevins, Pacifica Radio. 1976. Rebroadcast by Democracy Now! Wednesday, June 5, 2002. Retrieved May 12, 2005.
- “‘Me and My Shadow': A History of the FBI’s Covert Operations and COINTELPRO – Part 2″. 13:43 minute Real Audio. Produced by Adi Gevins, Pacifica Radio. 1976. Rebroadcast by Democracy Now! Thursday, June 6, 2002. Retrieved May 12, 2005.
- COINTELPRO videos on African American History Channel
- COINTELPRO STILL LIVES by Sista Shiriki Unganisha
- COINTELPRO: The Untold American Story – presented to U.N. World Conference Against Racism 2001 by the U.S. Congressional Black Caucus
- Nation of Islam website’s section on COINTELPRO, includes an assortment of documents, links and references.
- The Judi Bari case, COINTELPRO in the 1990s. Retrieved April 19, 2005.
- COINTELPRO: the Sabotage of Legitimate Dissent, What Really Happened, June 5, 1998.
- Fake Black Panther Party coloring book distributed by the FBI
- COINTELPRO-WHITE HATE Operation Against the Ku Klux Klan
- WIKILEAKS: Corrupted Oracle or Cointelpro Asset of the Establishment?
- McKinney, Cynthia. Article regarding COINTELPROon CounterPunch
- Jakopovich, Dan. The COINTELPRO programme against the Socialist Workers’ Party
U.S. government reports
- Final Report of the Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities. United States Senate, 94th Congress, 2nd Session, April 26 (legislative day, April 14), 1976. [AKA “Church Committee Report”]. Archived on COINTELPRO sources website. Transcription and HTML by Paul Wolf. Retrieved April 19, 2005.
- Intelligence Activities and the Rights of Americans, Book II
- I. Introduction and Summary
- II. The Growth of Domestic Intelligence: 1936 to 1976
- III. Findings
- (A) Violating and Ignoring the Law
- (B) Overbreadth of Domestic Intelligence Activity
- (C) Excessive Use of Intrusive Techniques
- (D) Using Covert Action to Disrupt and Discredit Domestic Groups
- (E) Political Abuse of Intelligence Information
- (F) Inadequate Controls on Dissemination and Retention
- (G) Deficiencies in Control and Accountability
- IV. Conclusions and Recommendations
- Supplementary Detailed Staff Reports, Book III
- COINTELPRO: The FBI’s Covert Action Programs Against American Citizens
- Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., Case Study
- The FBI’s Covert Action Program to Destroy the Black Panther Party
- The Use of Informants in FBI Intelligence Investigations
- Warrantless FBI Electronic Surveillance
- Warrantless Surreptitious Entries: FBI “Black Bag” Break-ins And Microphone Installations
- The Development of FBI Domestic Intelligence Investigations
- Domestic CIA and FBI Mail Opening
- CIA Intelligence Collection About Americans: CHAOS Program And The Office of Security
- National Security Agency Surveillance Affecting Americans
- Improper Surveillance of Private Citizens By The Military
- The Internal Revenue Service: An Intelligence Resource and Collector
- National Security, Civil Liberties, And The Collection of Intelligence: A Report On The Huston Plan
A note delivered to the Pontiff by cardinal Castrillon a month ago, reports what archbishop of Palermo, cardinal Romeo, said in one of his conversations in China last November: “His interlocutor thought, with fear, that the Pope would be the victim of an attack”. Scola could be his successor. The spokesman of the Holy See, Lombardi: “So incredible we cannot comment on”.
The Pontiff was told about the content of the note by cardinal Castrillon in person in mid January, during a private hearing. The document opens with a premise in upper case letters: “Stricly confidential”. Although many books have been written about Vatican conspiracies and the suspect death of John Paul I, these circumstances are surely uncommon. No one ever before putted on paper a plot to kill the Pope. A scheme that can have his final showdown in November, due to the deep divisions in the Holy corridors that picture the Pope opposed to secretary of State Tarcisio Bertone the day before an alleged succession.
THE PLOT AND ITS MAIN CHARACTERS.
Archbishop of Milan Angelo Scola will be Pope Ratzinger intended successor, the document says.
A document that is written completely in German, Pope Benedict’s mother language. The note has a long object line in bold: “Archbishop of Palermo, cardinal Paolo Romeo’s trip to Beijing on November 2011. During his hearings in China, cardinal Romeo foreshadows the death of Pope Benedict XVI within 12 months. Cardinal Romeo was told of a serious death plot by a well informed source. He was so sure and resolute, his interlocutors in China thought of the existence of an attack scheme against the Holy Father.”
Right after this astonishing preliminary remarks, the document has a three paragraph structure, each one with a bold title. The first one is “Trip to Beijing”; the second one is “Secretary of State Tarcisio Bertone” and the third one is “Pope Benedict XVI succession.”
The first paragraph retraces the unusual trip to Beijing of archbishop of Palermo, Paolo Romeo, an influential character in the Catholic Church: 73 years old, nominated cardinal by the Pope during Nov. 20th 2010 Consistory, he will participate by all meanings to the Papal conclave.
Born in Acireale (Sicily) from a prosperous family, Romeo loves new technology so much that on his archdiocese’s website you can click on “Follow us on Twitter” because “the Lord could use it to reveal all the ten commandments”.
After a long career in the Philippines, Venezuela, Rwanda, Colombia and Canada, Romeo was named papal nuncio in Italy. Pope Benedict disavowed anyway his willing to promote a conference among all Italian bishops, right before he was supposed to be elected as president of Conferenza episcopale italiana (Italian episcopal conference).
Pope Ratzinger disavowed cardinal Castrillon de Hoyos’ letter too, in which he was praising a convicted French bishop that didn’t press charges against one of his priests, guilty of sexual abuse of children.
Older that Romeo, Castrillon is a diehard traditionalist and, when in charged of the Lefebvrian movement as president of the ‘Ecclesia Dei’ commission, he didn’t report bishop Williamson’s anti-semitism to the Pope.
In his eighties in 2010, Castrillon retired and will not participate to the next conclave. He felt humiliated, although, when he discovered Romeo was in China.
“On November 2011, cardinal Romeo landed in Beijing with a tourist visa but he never met any representative of the Roman Catholic Church in China. He met, however, with Italian business men, living or working in Beijing, and some Chinese interlocutors. When in Beijing, cardinal Romeo reckoned he was a special envoy of the Pope to pursue his hearings started by cardinal Dario Castrillon in March 2010. He also stated he was nominated directly by the Pope to carry on the relationships between China and the Vatican”.
THE THREE PARAGRAPHS.
The anonymous writer describers Romeo as a braggart. The archbishop of Palermo bears out to be an old friend of cardinal Castrillon, expert of undergound churches in the Philippines and even as a member of a secret council that manages the Roman Catholic Church under the Ratzinger pontificate. “Cardinal Romeo surprised his interlocutors with the statement that he- Romeo- the Holy Father- Pope Benedict XVI- and cardinal Scola are a troika. On important matters, then, the Holy Father consults with him- Romeo- and with Scola.”
Then, in the second paragraph, Romeo seems to criticize the secretary of State, Tarcisio Bertone. “Cardinal Romeo harshly criticized Pope Benedict XVI because he would take care only of the liturgy, neglectting ‘daily affairs’ entrusted from Pope Benedict to cardinal Tarcisio Bertone”.
Bertone and Ratzinger are described having continuous quarrels. “The relationship between Pope Benedict XVI and his secretary of State Tarcisio Bertone seems conflictual. In confidentiality, cardinal Romeo reckoned that Pope Benedict XVI hates Tarcisio Bertone so much he would replace him right away with another cardinal. Romeo added, although, that there is no other cardinal available to fit this position and that is why cardinal Tarcisio Bertone is still in charged of the secretariat.”
At this point, given that “also the relationship between the Secretary of State and cardinal Scola is troubled as well”, here comes the paragraph that deals with the Pope’s succession. And cardinal Scola is way ahead in the nomination, due to his links to Comunione and Liberazione. “The Holy Father is managing the succession and he picked cardinal Scola as a suitable candidate, because he appears close to his personality. Slowly though relentlessly he is preparing and training him up to be the next Pope. On Holy Father’s initiative – says Romeo – cardinal Scola was transferred from Venice to Milan to get ready for his Papacy. Cardinal Romero kept astonishing his interlocutors in China – reckons the document delivered from the Colombian cardinal to the Pope – with his ever increasing indiscretions”.
After picturing conflictual relationships inside the Vatican, Romeo now tosses the bomb. “Cardinal Romeo announced the Holy Father had only 12 months ahead to live. And he was so sure about himself, as he knew it with precision, that he prophesied Pope Benedict’s death within the next 12 months. Cardinal Romeo’s allegations were told by a well informed source. His statement of a death plot against the Pope made his Chinese interlocutors thought the Holy Father was about to be the victim of an attack”. But the note goes on: “Cardinal Romeo didn’t imagine that his statements during private hearings in China could be sent from third parties to the Vatican”.
SUCCESSION, DENIAL AND THE MESS WITH THE VATICAN.
The last paragraph is all about the succession. “Pope Benedict’s successor would be Italian. As cardinal Romeo said in China, after Pope Benedict’s death, cardinal Scola would be elected Pontiff. But Scola has important enemies inside the Vatican as well”.
Il Fatto called the spokesman of the Holy See, father Federico Lombardi, to ask the Vatican official position on the document. His response, yesterday night, was: “You can print anything you want but you’ll take the responsibility for that. It is so out of reality that I won’t even take it in consideration. It is so incredible I won’t even answer your question”.
The denial is questionable because the document raises many questions about the health and the security of the Pope, giving the picture of a troubled Catholic Church.
Besides the truthfulness of the document, the note must be taken to the attention of the public opinion and cannot be kept as a secret. Then again, the document must be explained to Christians worldwide. On Feb. 4th, Il Fatto published the letter in which papal nuncio in the U.S.Carlo Maria Viganò underlined corruption cases, theft and false billing inside the Vatican and pointed at the director of the Vatican museums, Paolo Nicolini, as responsible for those crimes.
Then again, Il Fatto published an exclusive document that shown how the Vatican never gave its bank information to the anti-recycling authorities before April 2011. And now this note that unequivocally talks about the plot of death against the Pope. That is why we published the note: first of all because officials have to verify the truthfulness of the document and, second, because the Holy Roman Church has to explain the reason why hypothesis of murder circulate among cardinals and bishops.
La esposa de un empresario dueño de una de las plantas gráficas más importante del país, Alejandro Paul Vandenbroele, denunció que este abogado belga es socio del vicepresidente.
Buenos Aires (NA) — La esposa de un empresario dueño de una de las plantas gráficas más importante del país, Alejandro Paul Vandenbroele, denunció que este abogado belga es socio de Amado Boudou y testaferro de supuestos negocios del vicepresidente.
“Es una realidad, él mismo me lo ha dicho, tengo muchísimas pruebas de los negocios que hizo y que esta haciendo. Mi esposo es testaferro de Boudou, él trabaja directamente para el Gobierno.
Iba a poner una consultora para que el Gobierno le pasara las cosas ahí”, dijo la mujer, llamada Laura Muñoz, en el programa de Jorge Lanata por radio Mitre.
“Cuando empiezo a contar lo que sabía de los negocios encubiertos recibo amenazas, me han robado, vivo una situación de acoso permanente. Me dijo que si hablaba me iba a denunciar por loca y meter en el manicomio o presa”, agregó la mujer, que contó que Vandenbroele conoce a Boudou de Mar del Plata, su ciudad natal, como también a José María Núñez Carmona, otro presunto socio del vice.
“Necesitaban a un abogado de confianza para que les llevara las cosas sucias”, agregó Muñoz.
Previamente una investigación de Clarín indicó que Vandenbroele -que figura como monotributista en la AFIP- es el director de la empresa The Old Fund, una sociedad anónima que se creó en febrero de 2008 con un capital de 30.000 pesos. Dos años después adquirió Ciccone Calcográfica, ahora llamada Compañía de Valores Sudamericana y obtuvo un contrato con el Estado para imprimir billetes por 50 millones de pesos.
“Él es un abogado que trabajaba bien, pero no es un hombre con una inmensa fortuna para nada. El primer trabajo que hizo con Boudou me contó todos los detalles, la cantidad de dinero que iba a recibir, también me dijo que tenía miedo de quedar enganchado por este trabajo, que en realidad no era un trabajo, sino algo mafioso”, señaló la mujer.
La mujer, que denuncia que Vandenbroele no paga la cuota alimentaria de la hija de cuatro años que tienen en común, dijo que fue “amenazada de muerte muchísimas veces” por su ex, aunque advirtió que está “dispuesta a seguir hablando y a dar todos los datos que se necesiten”.
En septiembre pasado, luego de que llegara a los diarios el traspaso de la mega impresora a The Old Fund SA, la diputada del GEN Margarita Stolbizer presentó un pedido de informes al Poder Ejecutivo para indagar cuál es el interés de Boudou en esta empresa con el potencial para imprimir billetes, pasaportes y cheques.
02.02.12 | The property, known as the alleged “Hitler House” is featured on a German website that sells properties in France, Germany, Netherlands, Brazil, Argentina, Bulgaria and Spain. The heirs of the former banker José Rafael Tross are the owners.
The room has 452 hectares Inalco 5km of coastline on the Nahuel Huapi. It was designed by architect Alejandro Bustillo and built in the 40’s.
For some, the mansion was home to Adolf Hitler and Eva Braun after his alleged escape from Germany. For others it is just a myth that serves to attract tourism.
Tross family years ago would have received an offer of nearly $ 30 million. But eventually the sale did not materialize.
Despite the intent to sell is still there. Among other places, is offered on the German portal http://www.liderkey.com by 21,945,000 euros.
As indicated in the classified, it is a “unique property of 452 acres with 5 miles of shoreline on Lake Nahuel Huapi, including 900 m of beaches arena.Con coihue wooden pier and a boat ramp (…) A lavish summer residence, designed by architect Alejandro Bustillo. The Italian manufacturer Longaretti Pedro (the same who built the Residence Messidor) was who built it, with a group of very special chilenos.Algo workers and hierarchical Ideal for real estate and tourism developments. ”
Of course the ad does not mention that because the border zone, foreigners are not nationalized or naturalized, can not acquire property unless they have special permission from the Ministry of Interior’s Office.
The incredible story of the house
The Inalco lot was sold by the son of Italian immigrant Primo Capraro, Enrique García-Merou, a Buenos Aires lawyer connected to the high society of that time and linked to German-owned companies have worked with the flight of tens of Nazi agents to Argentina after the Second World War.
Merou Garcia bought the lot about 40 and hired the renowned architect Alejandro Bustillo-author of the Llao Llao hotel and civic center of Bariloche, among other works, to build the house.
The original plans for the farm and the facade of the main house, signed by the same Alejandro Bustillo, is dated March 1943 (maps published in the book “Bustillo in Patagonia” by Martha Levisman)
Different authors point Merou linking with Juan Peron and “sell” the property back to Jorge Antonio, alleged frontman of former president and representative of the Mercedes Benz in Argentina.
In the book “Bustillo in Patagonia” by Martha Levisman, outlines a curious detail: Merou would have imported copies of a typical dairy cow breed in the Swiss Alps was adapted to the area but then “mixed” with animals common.
For several years the complex served as a source of employment for many residents. So, former neighbors rule out the possibility that someone so well known cone Hitler had been there and not “leak” some information.
In the mid-50s the house was abandoned in the ’70s José Rafael Tross, former president of Banco Regional Exchange (BIR), bought the property. Tross and invested heavily to improve facilities.
In those years the banker also acquired Correntoso hotel, adjacent to Inalco. The counter of both properties would have been John Mahler, who actually turned out to be Reinhard Kopps, a former SS officer discovered in Bariloche in 94 American chain ABC News. Kopps died in September 2001.
Kopps was the one who told reporters Erich Priebke, accused of the slaughter of Ardeatine, by then a prominent member of society Bariloche.
Both had arrived in Bariloche after the war. Priebke, who was banished and tried for war crimes in Italy, directed at the Instituto Primo Capraro Bariloche, original owner of the land where the house was built.
Shortly after buying it sold the Hotel Correntoso Tross and was only Inalco property.
The banker had links with Eduardo Martinez de Hoz and Emilio Massera. In the ’80s there was the collapse of the BIR, one of the largest frauds in the history of the country, and Tross escaped. He was a fugitive in Mexico for decades.
After the scandal the complex was abandoned and looted. Staff who worked on the house says that in various inns and houses of La Angostura no furniture and even doors of the old property.
Hölters Foundation In 1993, the German School of Buenos Aires, leased the property to become a resort for trips to their students and other schools.
The house was abandoned and looted again.
Does the Berghof in Patagonia?
The doubts that feed the myth point to the internal layout of the main house, similar to Hitler’s Berghof in the Alps, and the construction of a small village self-sustaining parallel with own plant, crops and animals.
Charles Bryner, an alumnus of the college, who organized trips and student activities in Inalco, describes that in the top of the main house is a large hall, toward the lake there is a door that leads to two large rooms independent communicate by a shared bathroom. One of them has a balcony. Across the hall, two smaller rooms also have a shared bathroom.
Down the hall, on the other side of the house, two rooms with a very small bathroom and a staircase leading to the kitchen downstairs. Also on the first floor but no communication with the interior, lies a small room with bathroom.
On the ground floor there is a large lounge, a kitchen and three bedrooms with private bathrooms. In the main hall is seen a large fireplace and large windows overlooking the Nahuel Huapi and the Andes.
For an internal road, about 500 meters to the right of the main house leads to a small village where Bustillo built the “ferme” or farm, barn, house manager for the laborers, henhouse, a kennel and the center sprue, among other things. The buildings are about a kind of square pavers that was originally and is now covered by ashes.
On the coast there was a ramp and shed some authors that served to keep a seaplane. Bryner noted that the ramp was actually built for the ship “El Paisano”, a boat he bought the family Tross. There was also an important winch then disappeared.
2/02/12 | La propiedad, conocida como la supuesta “Casa de Hitler”, es ofrecida en un portal alemán que vende propiedades en Francia, Alemania, Países Bajos, Brasil, Argentina, Bulgaria y España. Los herederos del ex banquero José Rafael Trosso son los propietarios.
La estancia Inalco tiene 452 hectáreas y 5km de costa sobre el Nahuel Huapi. Fue diseñada por el arquitecto Alejandro Bustillo y construida en la década del 40.
Para algunos la mansión albergó a Adolf Hitler y Eva Braun luego de su supuesto escape de Alemania. Para otros, es sólo un mito que sirve para atraer al turismo.
Años atrás la familia Trosso habría recibido una oferta de casi 30 millones de dólares. Pero finalmente la venta no se concretó.
No obstante la intención de vender sigue estando. Entre otros lugares, se ofrece en el portal alemán http://www.liderkey.com por 21.945.000 de euros.
Según indica el clasificado, se trata de un “inigualable inmueble de 452 hectáreas con 5 Km de costa sobre el Lago Nahuel Huapi, incluyendo 900 m de playas de arena.Con muelle de madera de coihue y una rampa para lanchas (…)Es una fastuosa residencia veraniega, diseñada por el arquitecto Alejandro Bustillo. El constructor italiano Pedro Longaretti (el mismo que construyo la Residencia El Messidor) fue quien la construyó, con un grupo de trabajadores chilenos.Algo muy especial y jerárquico Ideal para desarrollos inmobiliarios y turísticos”.
Claro que el aviso no menciona que por ser zona de frontera, los extranjeros que no estén nacionalizados o naturalizados, no pueden adquirir propiedades al menos que cuenten con un permiso especial del Ministerio del Interior de la Nación.
La increíble historia de la casona
El lote de Inalco fue vendido por el hijo de Primo Capraro –inmigrante italiano- a Enrique García Merou, un abogado porteño conectado a la alta sociedad de entonces y vinculado a empresas de capitales alemanes que habrían colaborado con la huida de decenas de agentes nazis hacia la Argentina luego de la Segunda Guerra Mundial.
García Merou compró el lote alrededor del 40 y contrató al reconocido arquitecto Alejandro Bustillo –autor del hotel Llao Llao y el Centro Cívico de Bariloche, entre otras obras- para que construyera la casa.
Los planos originales de la granja y la fachada de la casa principal, firmados por el mismo Alejandro Bustillo, tienen fecha de marzo de 1943 (planos publicados en el libro “Bustillo en la Patagonia”, de Martha Levisman)
Distintos autores señalan la vinculación de Merou con Juan Domingo Perón y la “venta” posterior de la propiedad a Jorge Antonio, supuesto testaferro del ex presidente y representante de la empresa Mercedes Benz en la Argentina.
En el libro “Bustillo en la Patagonia”, de Martha Levisman, se reseña un detalle curioso: Merou habría importado ejemplares de una raza de vaca lechera típica de los Alpes Suizos que se adaptó a la zona pero que luego se “mestizó” con animales comunes.
Durante varios años el complejo sirvió como fuente de trabajo para numerosos pobladores. Por eso, antiguos vecinos descartan la posibilidad de que alguien tan conocido cono Hitler hubiera estado ahí y que no se “filtrara” alguna información.
A mediados del ´50 la casa quedó abandonada y en los ´70 José Rafael Trosso, ex presidente del Banco de Intercambio Regional (BIR), compró la propiedad. Trosso invirtió mucho dinero y mejoró las instalaciones.
Por esos años el banquero también adquirió el hotel Correntoso, aledaño a Inalco. El contador de ambas propiedades habría sido Juan Mahler, quien en realidad resultó ser Reinhard Kopps, ex oficial de la SS descubierto en Bariloche en el 94 por la cadena de noticias norteamericana ABC. Kopps murió en septiembre de 2001.
Kopps fue quien señaló a la prensa a Erich Priebke, acusado de la masacre de las Fosas Ardeatinas, por ese entonces destacado miembro de la sociedad barilochense.
Ambos habían llegado en Bariloche en la posguerra. Priebke, quien fue desterrado y juzgado por sus crímenes de guerra en Italia, dirigía en Bariloche el Instituto Primo Capraro, propietario original de la tierra donde se construyó la casona.
Al poco tiempo de comprarlo Trosso vendió el Hotel Correntoso y se quedó sólo con la propiedad de Inalco.
El banquero tenía vinculaciones con Martinez de Hoz y Eduardo Emilio Massera. En los ‘80 se produjo la quiebra del BIR –uno de los fraudes más importantes de la historia del país- y Trosso escapó. Estuvo prófugo en México durante décadas.
Tras el escándalo el complejo quedó abandonado y fue saqueado. Personal que trabajó en la casa asegura que en distintas hosterías y casas de La Angostura hay muebles y hasta puertas de la antigua propiedad.
En 1993 la Fundación Hölters, del colegio Alemán de Buenos Aires, alquiló la propiedad para convertirlo en un complejo destinado a los viajes de estudios de sus alumnos y de otros colegios.
La casa fue abandonada y nuevamente saqueada.
¿El Berghof de la Patagonia?
Las dudas que alimentan el mito señalan la disposición interna de la casa principal –similar al Berghof de Hitler en los Alpes- y la construcción de una pequeña villa paralela autosustentable, con usina propia, cultivos y animales.
Carlos Bryner, un ex alumno del colegio, quien organizaba los viajes y las actividades de los alumnos en Inalco, describe que en la parte superior de la casa principal hay un pasillo grande, hacia el lago hay una puerta que da a dos habitaciones muy amplias independientes que se comunican por un baño en común. Una de ellas tiene un balcón. Del otro lado del pasillo, otras dos habitaciones más pequeñas también con un baño en común.
Al final del pasillo, en la otra punta de la casa, dos habitaciones muy chicas con un baño y una escalera que comunica a la cocina de la planta baja. También en el primer piso pero sin comunicación con el interior, se ubica una habitación pequeña con baño.
En la planta baja hay un gran salón, una cocina y tres habitaciones con baño privado. En el salón principal se advierte una gran chimenea y amplios ventanales con vista al Nahuel Huapi y la cordillera.
Por un camino interno, a unos 500 metros a la derecha de la casa principal se llega a una pequeña villa donde Bustillo construyó la “ferme” o granja, con establo, casa del encargado, para los peones, gallinero, perrera y el centro un bebedero, entre otras cosas. Las construcciones se encuentran en torno a una especie de plazoleta que originalmente era de adoquines y ahora está cubierto por cenizas.
En la costa hubo una rampa y galpón que para algunos autores sirvió para guardar un hidroavión. Bryner señala que en realidad la rampa fue construida para el barco “El Paisano”, una embarcación que compró la familia Trosso. También había allí un malacate importante que luego desapareció.